Monday, 28 July 2014

How Dead Stars are Teaching Us What You Need to Build a Planet

What I actually do for living...

Repost alert! This first appeared as a guest post on Andrew Rushby's excellent II-I blog. I'm reposting it here as I'm off to a conference at Cambridge today, so will hopefully have quite a lot to write about soon. This post was written as an introduction to the research I'm doing for my PhD, so may be useful in providing some context for what I talk about next time. If you've already read it, feel free to stop here. If not, read on!

An asteroid plummets to its doom around the white dwarf GD 29-38. Studying the debris left from these asteroids can reveal the chemical composition of exoplanets. Image Credit: NASA

Twenty seven years ago astronomers noticed something strange about the white dwarf star GD29-38.

White dwarfs are dead stars, the burnt out carbon cores of stars like our Sun which have exhausted their hydrogen fuel; incredibly dense, incredibly hot balls of matter roughly the size of the Earth. Because of this high temperature, tens of thousands of degrees, all white dwarfs glow blue.

But the light from GD 29-38 wasn’t just blue. When it was split into a spectrum, separated into a rainbow of separate colours, there seemed to be something else there. Something shining with an infrared light, beyond the range of our eyesight.

Initially the discovers were excited, as the red light could have come from an orbiting brown dwarf, a mysterious object several times bigger than a planet but much smaller than a star. But both the white dwarf and the infrared source were pulsating slightly, periodically getting brighter and dimmer. If the red light was from a separate object, then it shouldn’t have pulsed in time with the white dwarf.

The spectrum also revealed metals in the white dwarf’s atmosphere, heavy elements like calcium, magnesium and iron. These were also out of place, as white dwarfs have such a strong gravity that anything heavier than hydrogen or helium should have sunk down into their cores long ago. The metals must be falling onto the white dwarf from the space around it- but how did they get there?

It took until 2003 for the origin of the mysterious infrared glow to be found, during which time many more white dwarfs with similar red spectra and metal polluted atmospheres were found. The explanation was that the infrared light is coming from a disc of dusty debris surrounding the white dwarf.

This debris was formed from the wreckage of an asteroid, leftover from when GD29-38 was a Sun-like star with its own system of planets. The dust in the disc rains down onto the white dwarf, explaining the metals we see in the atmosphere.    

The spectrum of GD 29-38. Along the bottom is its wavelength, or colour, going from blue on the left to invisible infrared on the right. The vertical axis shows how bright the white dwarf is at each wavelength. The difference between the blue white dwarf and red dust cloud can be clearly seen. Image Credit: NASA

The story of how the debris disc got there is a result of the turbulent formation of the white dwarf. As it runs out of fuel a star swells up to a huge red giant, then blows away roughly half of its mass in an immense stellar wind, leaving the tiny white dwarf core.

 With the gravitational force at its heart cut in two, the system of planets around the dying star is thrown into chaos. Planets begin to migrate outwards, trying to reach orbits twice as far away from the central star as before. As they do this, they risk coming into close contact with each other.

Some of the planets survive these encounters and carry on as they are. Others, especially when a big Jupiter sized planet is involved, are thrown out of the system into the depths of interstellar space. And some are scattered into the centre of the system towards the white dwarf. 

These unlucky asteroids and dwarf planets fall in towards the white dwarf until they reach a point known as the tidal disruption radius. There the tidal force, the difference in gravitational pull between the parts of the asteroid nearest the white dwarf and the areas further away, becomes so great that the asteroid is ripped apart, forming the dusty debris disc that we see as an infrared glow.

The discovery of this process lead to an important conclusion. As the dust rains down onto the white dwarf it becomes visible to our telescopes. If we can measure what metals there are, and how much of each there is, then we can reveal the chemical composition of the asteroid or planet that formed the disc. We can ask, and answer, the question: “What are planets made of?”

Two decades ago we only knew about the eight planets in our solar system (Pluto was never a planet, it was just mislabelled). Now we know of over a thousand planets, new worlds orbiting hundreds of stars. Through our telescopes we can measure the size of these planets, what their masses are, and even in some cases get a glimpse into their atmospheres.

But we can’t find out what they’re made of, what the geology of these newly discovered planets is like. This means that we don’t know for sure if the way that the rocky planets are built in our solar system, the particular mix of iron, oxygen, magnesium, silicon and other chemicals that make up the Earth and its neighbours, is the way all planets are built.

The metal polluted white dwarfs form a perfect laboratory, presenting us with rocky objects that have broken apart into their chemical components. By observing as many as we can, we can begin to explore the chemical diversity of planets and planetary systems. We can see if the way our planets are built is the normal way to construct a planet, or whether Earth is even more unique than we thought.

To date we’ve discovered around a dozen white dwarfs with enough chemicals to compare their systems in detail with our own. So far, they look fairly similar to the Earth, a hopeful sign. But we need many more to truly explore this area, and over the next few years myself and others will be scouring the sky, using the Hubble Space Telescope above us and an array of telescopes on the ground. We will find more metal polluted white dwarfs, measure the chemicals of the planetary debris around them, and begin to explore in detail what things you need to build a planet.

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Nasa's Orbiting Carbon Observartory 2 Launches into Space in a Dramatic Liftoff

This morning NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO2) launched into Earth orbit on a Delta 2 rocket. I've posted the video of the launch here, as it was one of the most dramatic rocket launches I've ever seen (and I watch most of them).

When the engines ignited there was a huge flash, which for a moment made me think the rocket had exploded.  Fortunately, a second later the Delta 2 soared into the sky, completing a flawless launch and orbital insertion within the hour.

Losing this rocket would have been incredibly sad, as the first Orbiting Carbon Observatory was lost during launch in 2009. The protective faring (the pointy bit on the front of the rocket) on its Taurus XL launcher failed to open, resulting in the rocket being too heavy to reach orbit.

NASA quickly ordered a replacement, OCO2 to be built, a process complicated by the fact that many components were no longer being produced. When a second Taurus XL rocket failed due to problems with the fairing, the OCO2 was switched to the ultra-reliable Delta 2. Today, five years later, that Delta 2 delivered OCO2 to it's place in the "A-train", a large formation of Earth-observing satellites.

Artist's impression of NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO2), which launched this morning on a mission to precisely measure the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. Image Credit: NASA.
The OCO2's mission is to precisely measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere below it, It has a high enough resolution to distinguish both regional  variation, identifying areas which produce or remove CO2, and seasonal variation, investigating how the CO2 levels change with time.

OCO2's only instrument is a spectrometer, designed to split the light coming through the atmosphere to distinguish the particular colours emitted from CO2. It is so precise that it will be able to measure changes in CO2 levels of less than 2 parts in a million.

Hopefully over the next few years the OCO2 will provide a new and important insight into this vital component of the atmosphere. But for now, enjoy the video of its incredible launch!

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